Кавказология. 2017. №4_Цибенко В.В.

Дата создания: 29.12.2017
Звёзд: 1Звёзд: 2Звёзд: 3Звёзд: 4Звёзд: 5 (Пока оценок нет)
Загрузка...

Правильная ссылка на работу:

Цибенко В.В. Восприятие «Кавказской войны» в западной и турецкой историографии // Электронный журнал — Кавказология. – 2017. – №4. – С. 84-94.    DOI: https://doi.org/10.31143/2542-212X-2017-4-84-94

Кавказология. 2017. №4_Цибенко В.В.

УДК 930, 94

DOI: 10.31143/2542-212X-2017-4-84-94

ВОСПРИЯТИЕ «КАВКАЗСКОЙ ВОЙНЫ» В ЗАПАДНОЙ И ТУРЕЦКОЙ ИСТОРИОГРАФИИ* 

В.В. ЦИБЕНКО 

Южный федеральный университет

Центр междисциплинарных гуманитарных исследований

344002, г. Ростов-на-Дону, ул. Пушкинская, д. 160, каб. 202

E-mail: tsibenkovv@sfedu.ru

Аннотация. В западной и турецкой историографии термин «Кавказская война» воспринимается как инновация и искажение истории, что указывает на недостаточное знакомство с российской историографией по Северо-Западному Кавказу. Однако следует отметить обоюдность данного процесса, поскольку альтернативная терминология и сопутствующие ей смыслы ускользают от внимания российских исследователей. В этой связи в данной статье предпринимается попытка провести анализ ключевых понятий, используемых в турецкой и западной историографии для обозначения военных действий на Северо-Западном Кавказе в ходе его присоединения к Российской империи. Основным методом проведенного исследования стал компаративный. При подготовке статьи использовались турецкоязычные и англоязычные материалы. Следует отметить, что за «турецкой» и «западной» историографией в реальности скрывается множество историографических традиций и школ, подверженных влиянию как географического фактора, так и этнического. С целью их изучения ставилась задача найти возможные причины, обуславливающие генезис тех или иных подходов к описанию истории Северо-Западного Кавказа и создать некую схематичную периодизацию. По возможности анализировался фактор влияния российской и локальной кавказской историографии. Осознавая все недостатки широких обобщений и опасность создания упрощенной картины, было решено принимать историографию как комплексное, многосоставное и порой противоречивое явление.

Ключевые слова: Северо-Западный Кавказ; черкесы; историография; Турция; Кавказская война; Русско-Черкесская война.

ИСТОЧНИКИ И ЛИТЕРАТУРА

1. Джевдет-паша. Описание событий в Грузии и Черкесии по отношению к Оттоманской империи от 1192 года по 1202 год хиджры (1775 – 1784) // Русский архив. – 1888. – Кн. 3. – Вып. 3. – С. 369-392.

2. Материалы I Кошехабльского форума «История – достояние народа» / Ред. Д.Х. Мекулов. – Майкоп: Адыгея, 1991. – 264 с.

3. Трахо Р. Черкесы. – Нальчик: Полиграфкомбинат им. Революции 1905 г., 1992. – 158 с.

4. Цибенко С.Н. Актуализация проблемных вопросов черкесов России и диаспоры в англоязычных источниках // Научная мысль Кавказа. – 2014. – № 1 (77). – С. 103-112.

5. Aslan C. Bir Soykırımın Adı 1864 Büyük Çerkes Sürgünü // Uluslararası Suçlar ve Tarih (Uluslararası Hukuk ve Tarih Dergisi). – 2006. – No. 1. – P. 1-33.

6. Aydemir İ. Göç. Çerkes Sürgünü. – Ankara: Gelişim Matbaacılık, 1988. – 220 p.

7. Baddeley J. The Russian conquest of the Caucasus. – London, New-York, Bombey, Calcuta: Longmans, Green and Co, 1908. – 595 p.

8. Barlas C. Kafkasya’da Ölüm ve Sürgün // Akademik Perspektif: сайт. URL: http://akademikperspektif.com/2017/09/07/kafkasyada-olum-surgun/ (дата обращения: 01.12.2017).

9. Bashqawi A. Circassia: Born to Be Free. – Wayne-New Jersey: Xlibris Corporation, 2017. – 662 p.

10. Bell J.S. Journal of a residence in Circassia during the years 1837, 1838, and 1839. – London: E. Moxon, 1840. – Vol. 1, 2. – 453, 488 p.

11. Berkok I. Tarihte Kafkasya. – İstanbul: İstanbul Matbaası, 1958. – 533 p.

12. Berzeg N. Gerçek, Tarihi ve Politik Nedenleriyle çerkes Sürgünü. – Ankara: Takav Matbaacılık, 1996. – 221 p.

13. Berzeg S.E. Kafkasya ve Çerkesler Bibliyografyası. – Samsun: Nart Publications, 1996. – 143 р.

14. Besleney Z.A. An Overview of Circassian Studies Literature // The North Caucasus: Histories, Diasporas and Current Challenges. Proceedings of the Sukhum Conference «Towards a New Generation of Scholarships on the Caucasus» / Ed. Ergün Özgür. – Ankara: Kalkan Matbaası, 2009. – Р. 74-90.

15. Bilge S. Osmanlı Devleti ve Kafkasya. – İstanbul: Eren Yayıncılık, 2005. – 250 p.

16. Brock P. The Fall of Circassia: A Study in Private Diplomacy // The English Historical Review. – 1956. – Vol. 71. – No. 280. – Р. 401-27.

17. Broocks W. The Politics of the Conquest of the Caucasus, 1855-1864 // Nationalities Papers. – 1996. – Vol. 24. – No. 4. – P. 649-660.

18. Bullough O. Let Our Fame Be Great: Journeys Among the Defiant People of the Caucasus. – New York: Basic Books, 2010. – 496 p.

19. Cabağı W.G. Kafkas-Rus Mücadelesi. – Istanbul: Baha Matbaası, 1967. – 112 p.

20. Chukhua M. Circassian Genocide – The History of Problem, Chronicles of Events, the Scientific Conclusion // Parliament of Georgia: сайт URL: http://www.parliament.ge/files/1544_32742_536746_genocidi-en.pdf (дата обращения: 01.12.2017).

21. Ditson G.L. Circassia: or a Tour to the Caucasus. – New-York: Stringer &Townsend, 1850. – 474 p.

22. Esadze S. Çerkesya’nın Ruslar Tarafından İşgali. Kafkas-Rus Savaşlarının Son Dönemi. – Ankara: Kafkas Derneği Yayınları, 1999. – 134 p.

23. Gammer M. Russian Resistance to the Tsar. Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan. – London: Frank Cass, 1994. – 452 p.

24. Goble P. Moscow Disinformation Spreading from Mass Media to Academic Output // Window on Eurasia: сайт. URL: http://windowoneurasia2.blogspot.ru/2016/01/moscow-disinformation-spreading-from.html (дата обращения: 01.12.2017).

25. Güneş-Yağcı Z. Osmanlı Devleti’nin Kuzey Kafkasya Siyaseti: Çerkeslerden Bağlılık Senedi Alınması // Karadeniz. – 2009. – No. 2. – P. 99-112.

26. Henze P.B. Fire and Sword in the Caucasus: The 19th Century Resistance of the North Caucasian Mountaineers // Central Asian Survey. – 1983. – Vol. 2. – P. 5-44.

27. Hızal A.H. Kuzey Kafkasya Hürriyet ve İstiklal Davası. – Ankara: Orkun Yayınları, 1961. – 163 p

28. Hizaloğlu M. Şeyh Şamil (Şimalî Kafkasya İstiklâl Mücadeleleri). – Ankara: Ayyildiz Matbaasi, 1958. – 80 p.

29. Jaimoukha A.M. Circassian Bibliography & Library. – Amman: Sanjalay Book Press, 2009. – 224 p.

30. Jesse W. Notes of a Half-pay in Search of Health: Or, Russia, Circassia, and the Crimea, in 1839-1840. – London: J. Madden and Company, 1841. – 352 p.

31. Kalkan Y.B. Çerkes Halkı ve Sorunları: Çerkes Tarih, Kültür, Coğrafya ve Siyasetine Sınıfsal Yaklaşım. – Istanbul: Gün Yayıncılık, 2006. – 354 р.

32. Kanbolat Y. Bin Sekiz Yüz Altmış Dörde Kadar Kuzey Kafkasya Kabilelerinde Din veToplumsal Düzen. – Ankara: Bayır Yayınları, 1989. – 114 p.

33. Kasumov A., Kasumov H. Çerkes Soykırımı: Çerkeslerin XIX. Yüzyıl Kurtuluş Savaşı Tarihi. – Ankara: Kafkas Derneği, 1995. – 310 p.

34. Kırzıoğlu F. Osmanlılar’ın Kafkas Ellerini Fethi (1451-1590). – Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi, 1976. – 550 p.

35. Kosok P. Kuzey Kafkasya Hürriyet ve İstiklâl Savaşı Tarihinden Yapraklar. – İstanbul:Çeltüt Matbaası, 1960. – 64 p.

36. Kreitn I. A Colonial Experiment in Cleansing: the Russian Conquest of Western Caucasus,1856-65 // Journal of Genocide Research. – 2009. – Vol. 11. – No. 2. – P. 213-241.

37. Lee R. Stories from Russia, Siberia, Poland and Circassia. – London: T. Nelson and Sons, 1853. – 444 p.

38. Leitzinger A. The Circassian Genocide // The Eurasian Politician. – 2000. – No. 2. URL: http://users.jyu.fi/~aphamala/pe/issue2/circass.htm (дата обращения: 01.12.2017).

39. Longworth J.A. A Year Among the Circassians. – London: H. Colburn, 1840. – Vol. 1. – 312 p.

40. Natho K.I. Circassian History. – Wayne-New Jersey: Xlibris Corporation, 2009. – 574 p.

41. Özbek B. Çerkesya Bibliyografyası. – Ankara: Private Edition, 1993. – 252 p.

42. Özden M. 21 Mayıs’ta Çerkes Kurumları Neden Birleşemez? // Özgür Çerkes: сайт. URL: http://www.ozgurcerkes.com/?Syf=22&Mkl=870423&pt=Murat%20%C3%96zden&21-May%C4%B1s%E2%80%99ta-%C3%87erkes-Kurumlar%C4%B1-Neden-Birle%C5%9Femez (дата обращения: 01.12.2017).

43. Özden M. Özgürlüğe Giden Yol Özgür Çerkes: сайт. URL: http://www.ozgurcerkes.com/?Syf=22&Mkl=885764&pt=Murat%20%C3%96zden&%C3%96zg%C3%BCrl%C3%BC%C4%9Fe-Giden-Yol (дата обращения: 25.05.2016).

44. Richmond W. The Circassian Genocide (Genocide, Political Violence, Human Rights). – New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2013. – 218 p.

45. Rolland S.E. Circassia: Speech [of Stewart E. Rolland,] [on behalf of the Circassians intheir struggle against subjugation by Russia] at a public meeting at Preston held at the Corn Exchange,Preston, October 1, 1862 to receive the deputies from Circassia [in a report of the meeting]. – London:Hardwicke, 1862. – 34 p.

46. Rolland S.E. The growth of Russian power contingent on the decay of the British constitution. – London, Robert Hardwicke, 1858. – 48 p.

47. Spencer E. Turkey, Russia, the Black Sea, and Circassia. – London: G. Routledge & Company, 1855. – 412 p.

48. Tsibenko V.V., Tsibenko S.N. Circassian Question: Transformation of Content and Perceptio // Былые Годы. – 2015. – Vol. 36. – No. 2. – Р. 450-460.

49. Urquhart D. Recent events in the East. – London: Trübner & Co., 1854. – 311 p.

50. Tokses S. Kafkasya’da Kafkas-Rus Mücadelesi, Kabartay-Balkar Cumhuriyeti (XIX. Asırda). Undergraduate Dissertation. Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of History. – Istanbul, 1966. – 57 p.

51. Wagner F. Schamyl and Circassia. – London: G. Routledge & Co., 1854. – 188 p.

52. Youghar I., Bashqawi A. The Circassians Refuse the Hostile Attitude // Radio Adiga: сайт. URL: http://www.radioadiga.com/ClosedIndex/artikkk.php?ind=4425 (дата обращения: 01.12.2017).

PERCEPTION OF THE «CAUCASIAN WAR» IN WESTERN AND TURKISH HISTORIOGRAPHY

V.V. TSIBENKO

Southern Federal University

Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities

344002, Russia, Rostov-on-Don, Pushkinskaya 160, 202

E-mail: tsibenkovv@sfedu.ru

Abstract. In Western and Turkish historiography the term «Caucasian War» is perceived as innovation and distortion of historical reality. This points out at the insufficient acquaintance with Russian historiography on North-Western Caucasus while there is some reciprocity in this respect, because alternative terminology and accompanying it meanings escape the attention of Russian historians. This paper presents an analysis of key concepts used in Turkish and Western historiography to denote fighting in North-Western Caucasus in the course of its acquisition by the Russian empire. The principal research method is comparative one. The paper is based on materials in Turkish and English languages. It should be noted that under the terms «Turkish» and «Western» historiographies in fact is hiding the multiplicity of traditions and schools of historical writing susceptible to the influence of geographic as well as ethnic factors. In order of their studying the task was set to find out the possible causes conditioning the genesis of various approaches to representations of history of North-Western Caucasus and to construct some schematic periodization. The special attention was paid to the influence, exerted by Russian and local Caucasian historiography. Relying on the understanding of all the flaws of broad generalizations and the danger of creating a simplified picture, historiography is here taken to be a complex, plural and occasionally controversial phenomenon.

Key words: North-Western Caucasus; Circassians; historiography; Turkey; Caucasian War; Russo-Circassian War.

REFERENCES

1. Dzhevdet-pasha. Opisanie sobytii v Gruzii i Cherkesii po otnosheniyu k Ottomanskoi imperii ot 1192 goda po 1202 god khidzhry (1775 – 1784) // Russkii arkhiv. – 1888. – Kn. 3. – Vyp. 3. – S. 369-392.

2. Materialy I Koshekhabl’skogo foruma «Istoriya – dostoyanie naroda» / Red. D.Kh. Mekulov. – Maikop: Adygeya, 1991. – 264 s.

3. Trakho R. Cherkesy. – Nal’chik: Poligrafkombinat im. Revolyutsii 1905 g., 1992. – 158 s.

4. Tsibenko S.N. Aktualizatsiya problemnykh voprosov cherkesov Rossii i diaspory v angloyazychnykh istochnikakh // Nauchnaya mysl’ Kavkaza. – 2014. – № 1 (77). – S. 103-112.

5. Aslan C. Bir Soykırımın Adı 1864 Büyük Çerkes Sürgünü // Uluslararası Suçlar ve Tarih (Uluslararası Hukuk ve Tarih Dergisi). – 2006. – No. 1. – P. 1-33.

6. Aydemir İ. Göç. Çerkes Sürgünü. – Ankara: Gelişim Matbaacılık, 1988. – 220 p.

7. Baddeley J. The Russian conquest of the Caucasus. – London, New-York, Bombey, Calcuta: Longmans, Green and Co, 1908. – 595 p.

8. Barlas C. Kafkasya’da Ölüm ve Sürgün // Akademik Perspektif: sait. URL: http://akademikperspektif.com/2017/09/07/kafkasyada-olum-surgun/ (data obrashcheniya: 01.12.2017).

9. Bashqawi A. Circassia: Born to Be Free. – Wayne-New Jersey: Xlibris Corporation, 2017. – 662 p.

10. Bell J.S. Journal of a residence in Circassia during the years 1837, 1838, and 1839. – London: E. Moxon, 1840. – Vol. 1, 2. – 453, 488 p.

11. Berkok I. Tarihte Kafkasya. – İstanbul: İstanbul Matbaası, 1958. – 533 p.

12. Berzeg N. Gerçek, Tarihi ve Politik Nedenleriyle çerkes Sürgünü. – Ankara: Takav Matbaacılık, 1996. – 221 p.

13. Berzeg S.E. Kafkasya ve Çerkesler Bibliyografyası. – Samsun: Nart Publications, 1996. – 143 r.

14. Besleney Z.A. An Overview of Circassian Studies Literature // The North Caucasus: Histories, Diasporas and Current Challenges. Proceedings of the Sukhum Conference «Towards a New Generation of Scholarships on the Caucasus» / Ed. Ergün Özgür. – Ankara: Kalkan Matbaası, 2009. – R. 74-90.

15. Bilge S. Osmanlı Devleti ve Kafkasya. – İstanbul: Eren Yayıncılık, 2005. – 250 p.

16. Brock P. The Fall of Circassia: A Study in Private Diplomacy // The English Historical Review. – 1956. – Vol. 71. – No. 280. – R. 401-27.

17. Broocks W. The Politics of the Conquest of the Caucasus, 1855-1864 // Nationalities Papers. – 1996. – Vol. 24. – No. 4. – P. 649-660.

18. Bullough O. Let Our Fame Be Great: Journeys Among the Defiant People of the Caucasus. – New York: Basic Books, 2010. – 496 p.

19. Cabağı W.G. Kafkas-Rus Mücadelesi. – Istanbul: Baha Matbaası, 1967. – 112 p.

20. Chukhua M. Circassian Genocide – The History of Problem, Chronicles of Events, the Scientific Conclusion // Parliament of Georgia: sait URL: http://www.parliament.ge/files/1544_32742_536746_genocidi-en.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 01.12.2017).

21. Ditson G.L. Circassia: or a Tour to the Caucasus. – New-York: Stringer &Townsend, 1850. – 474 p.

22. Esadze S. Çerkesya’nın Ruslar Tarafından İşgali. Kafkas-Rus Savaşlarının Son Dönemi. – Ankara: Kafkas Derneği Yayınları, 1999. – 134 p.

23. Gammer M. Russian Resistance to the Tsar. Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan. – London: Frank Cass, 1994. – 452 p.

24. Goble P. Moscow Disinformation Spreading from Mass Media to Academic Output // Window on Eurasia: sait. URL: http://windowoneurasia2.blogspot.ru/2016/01/moscow-disinformation-spreading-from.html (data obrashcheniya: 01.12.2017).

25. Güneş-Yağcı Z. Osmanlı Devleti’nin Kuzey Kafkasya Siyaseti: Çerkeslerden Bağlılık Senedi Alınması // Karadeniz. – 2009. – No. 2. – P. 99-112.

26. Henze P.B. Fire and Sword in the Caucasus: The 19th Century Resistance of the North Caucasian Mountaineers // Central Asian Survey. – 1983. – Vol. 2. – P. 5-44.

27. Hızal A.H. Kuzey Kafkasya Hürriyet ve İstiklal Davası. – Ankara: Orkun Yayınları, 1961. – 163 p

28. Hizaloğlu M. Şeyh Şamil (Şimalî Kafkasya İstiklâl Mücadeleleri). – Ankara: Ayyildiz Matbaasi, 1958. – 80 p.

29. Jaimoukha A.M. Circassian Bibliography & Library. – Amman: Sanjalay Book Press, 2009. – 224 p.

30. Jesse W. Notes of a Half-pay in Search of Health: Or, Russia, Circassia, and the Crimea, in 1839-1840. – London: J. Madden and Company, 1841. – 352 p.

31. Kalkan Y.B. Çerkes Halkı ve Sorunları: Çerkes Tarih, Kültür, Coğrafya ve Siyasetine Sınıfsal Yaklaşım. – Istanbul: Gün Yayıncılık, 2006. – 354 r.

32. Kanbolat Y. Bin Sekiz Yüz Altmış Dörde Kadar Kuzey Kafkasya Kabilelerinde Din veToplumsal Düzen. – Ankara: Bayır Yayınları, 1989. – 114 p.

33. Kasumov A., Kasumov H. Çerkes Soykırımı: Çerkeslerin XIX. Yüzyıl Kurtuluş Savaşı Tarihi. – Ankara: Kafkas Derneği, 1995. – 310 p.

34. Kırzıoğlu F. Osmanlılar’ın Kafkas Ellerini Fethi (1451-1590). – Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi, 1976. – 550 p.

35. Kosok P. Kuzey Kafkasya Hürriyet ve İstiklâl Savaşı Tarihinden Yapraklar. – İstanbul:Çeltüt Matbaası, 1960. – 64 p.

36. Kreitn I. A Colonial Experiment in Cleansing: the Russian Conquest of Western Caucasus,1856-65 // Journal of Genocide Research. – 2009. – Vol. 11. – No. 2. – P. 213-241.

37. Lee R. Stories from Russia, Siberia, Poland and Circassia. – London: T. Nelson and Sons, 1853. – 444 p.

38. Leitzinger A. The Circassian Genocide // The Eurasian Politician. – 2000. – No. 2. URL: http://users.jyu.fi/~aphamala/pe/issue2/circass.htm (data obrashcheniya: 01.12.2017).

39. Longworth J.A. A Year Among the Circassians. – London: H. Colburn, 1840. – Vol. 1. – 312 p.

40. Natho K.I. Circassian History. – Wayne-New Jersey: Xlibris Corporation, 2009. – 574 p.

41. Özbek B. Çerkesya Bibliyografyası. – Ankara: Private Edition, 1993. – 252 p.

42. Özden M. 21 Mayıs’ta Çerkes Kurumları Neden Birleşemez? // Özgür Çerkes: sait. URL: http://www.ozgurcerkes.com/?Syf=22&Mkl=870423&pt=Murat%20%C3%96zden&21-May%C4%B1s%E2%80%99ta-%C3%87erkes-Kurumlar%C4%B1-Neden-Birle%C5%9Femez (data obrashcheniya: 01.12.2017).

43. Özden M. Özgürlüğe Giden Yol Özgür Çerkes: sait. URL: http://www.ozgurcerkes.com/?Syf=22&Mkl=885764&pt=Murat%20%C3%96zden&%C3%96zg%C3%BCrl%C3%BC%C4%9Fe-Giden-Yol (data obrashcheniya: 25.05.2016).

44. Richmond W. The Circassian Genocide (Genocide, Political Violence, Human Rights). – New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2013. – 218 p.

45. Rolland S.E. Circassia: Speech [of Stewart E. Rolland,] [on behalf of the Circassians intheir struggle against subjugation by Russia] at a public meeting at Preston held at the Corn Exchange,Preston, October 1, 1862 to receive the deputies from Circassia [in a report of the meeting]. – London:Hardwicke, 1862. – 34 p.

46. Rolland S.E. The growth of Russian power contingent on the decay of the British constitution. – London, Robert Hardwicke, 1858. – 48 p.

47. Spencer E. Turkey, Russia, the Black Sea, and Circassia. – London: G. Routledge & Company, 1855. – 412 p.

48. Tsibenko V.V., Tsibenko S.N. Circassian Question: Transformation of Content and Perceptio // Bylye Gody. – 2015. – Vol. 36. – No. 2. – R. 450-460.

49. Urquhart D. Recent events in the East. – London: Trübner & Co., 1854. – 311 p.

50. Tokses S. Kafkasya’da Kafkas-Rus Mücadelesi, Kabartay-Balkar Cumhuriyeti (XIX. Asırda). Undergraduate Dissertation. Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of History. – Istanbul, 1966. – 57 p.

51. Wagner F. Schamyl and Circassia. – London: G. Routledge & Co., 1854. – 188 p.

52. Youghar I., Bashqawi A. The Circassians Refuse the Hostile Attitude // Radio Adiga: sait. URL: http://www.radioadiga.com/ClosedIndex/artikkk.php?ind=4425 (data obrashcheniya: 01.12.2017).

* Исследование проведено в рамках выполнения государственного задания Минобрнауки РФ в сфере научной деятельности №30.2875.2017/8.9.

Если вы нашли ошибку, пожалуйста, выделите фрагмент текста и нажмите Ctrl+Enter.

Сообщить об опечатке

Текст, который будет отправлен нашим редакторам: